The area was discovered i 1960 by the Supreme Coucil of Atiquities i cooperatio with the Polish missio represetative of the Polish Ceter for the Atiquities of the Mediterraea. The importace of this area is due to the fact that it cotais a umber of valuable moumets datig back to the Ptolemaic, Roma, Byzatie ad Islamic periods, as well as its uique locatio. It represets the southwester boudary of the royal district – the most importat ad oldest part of the Old City – With the mai crossroad. The area icludes the Roma amphitheater, the Roma bath, the cisters, the halls of the aciet Alexadria Uiversity, ad a group of villas datig back to the early Roma era. The most importat of these are the Bird Villa, a museum of Roma mosaics, which is oe of the few models that highlight the developmet of the mosaic idustry. The area is also home to a rage of historic streets ad galleries, a vivid example of the Roma lifestyle throughout the ages.
The Pillar of Al-Sawari (Diocletia’s Colum) is oe of the most famous archaeological sites i Alexadria Archeology. It was built betwee the curret Muslim cemetery area kow as the “Cemetery of the Colum” ad the aciet hill of Kom Al Shakafa. It is about 26.85 m log ad is made of pik graite. The remais of the Serapeum Temple (Temple of the Serpetie Serapis) were fouded by Kig Ptolemy III durig the third cetury BC. The temple was the largest ad most importat temples of Alexadria i the Greco-Roma era. The regio was best kow as the “Pillar of Suarees” by Arab travelers who later became the “Al-Sawari” ad was kow as the “Pompey Colum” at the historias of the Crusades. The Alexadrias set up this pillar o the Temple of the Sarabium, dedicated to the Emperor Diocletia (248-305 AD) ad thak him for redistributig the quota of wheat that Egypt was supposed to sed to Rome. O the upper part of the base is a egraved Greek iscriptio, Ad the meaig of this iscriptio is as follows: “For the just Emperor, the protector of Alexadria, Diocletia the ivicible, the goveror of Egypt built this pillar.”
(1279-1212 BC). It has bee liked to a high plateau of sadstoe 4 km south of their curret locatio, which was trasferred to it i the campaig to save the effects of ubia after the establishmet of the High Dam i 1960. The site of Abu Simbel cotais two temples: the Temple of Abu Simbel the Great, which was dedicated to the worship of “Ra Hor My sister” ad “Amu Ra” ad the Kig himself, ad the temple of Abu Simbel small, which is located 100 meters from the first temple dedicated to the worshiper Hathor ad Quee efertari, the mai wife of the kig. The ame “Abu Simbel” was lauched o this site by the Swiss traveler Joha Ludwig Burckhardt, kow as Ibrahim Burkhart, who discovered the site i 1813 whe he was accompaied by a child amed Abu Simbel. The importace of the Temple of Abu Simbel is attributed to its associatio with the pheomeo of the su i the face of the statue of Pharaoh Ramses II twice a year; the first coicides with the aiversary of his birthday o 22 October ad the secod o 22 February, the aiversary of his coroatio. The temple is distiguished by a uique architectural desig. It was decorated with four large statues of Kig Ramses II, each of which reaches about 20 meters log. The façade is followed by a corridor leadig to the temple, which is carved ito the rock at a depth of 48 meters. Its walls are decorated with scees of the kig’s victories ad coquests. The Battle of Kadesh where he defeated the Hittites, i additio to the religious scees depictig the kig i his relatios with the Egyptia gods. The small temple of Abu Simbel was give by Kig Ramses II to Quee efertari, his wife ad master. His face is adored with six large statues of equal size represetig the kig ad the quee i a clear demostratio of the high status ejoyed by the quee i her husbad. The temple exteds ito the plateau at a depth of 24 m. From the magificet views that depicted the quee worshipig the various gods either with the kig or aloe.
Is the temple of the commemoratio of Quee Hatshepsut i the moastery of the sea. The aciet Egyptias called it the Bridge of Amu, the holiest shrie of Amu. The temple was built by the architect “Siamot” i a distictive style cosistig of three balcoies. The temple is famous for its sacred birth of Hatshepsut ad its costructio of Amu, as well as the details of its famous jourey to Putlad. The temple has several booths, most otably the oes devoted to Hathor ad Aubis. The temple iscriptios clearly show the maifestatios of domestic ad religious hostility through the deliberate distortio of the images of Hatshepsut by Thutmose III, ad the distortio of the images of Amo by the priests of Ato.
The ame “Kom Ombo” comes from two parts; the first is “kum” meaig “hill”; the secod is “ambo”, which is defied as “abo” or “obo” ie gold, as this regio cotrols the roads leadig to the gold mies, amed “Ba-Subek”, the seat of Sobek, where he had worked sice pre-family times. Kom Ombo Temple is located o a high hill overlookig the easter bak of the ile. The temple dates back to the era of Ptolemy VI, but costructio ad egravigs cotiued util the reig of Ptolemy XII. The temple of Kom Ombo is oe of the most importat temples i Egypt because of its architectural ad religious excellece, where it is dedicated to two worshipers, Sobek ad Horus. The temple is divided ito two imagiary sectios. The orther part of the temple is devoted to worshipers of the sacred triad of Horus. . The temple was also distiguished by a series of importat views, icludig the divisio of the temple by the goddess Maat, the goddess of truth ad justice, as well as a collectio of surgical ad medical istrumets ad a list of feasts held i the temple.
The islad of Phila is of great importace to the aciet Egyptia because of its distiguished locatio. It ad Aswa formed atural geographical boudaries. They are kow i Egyptia texts as the dividig lie. The word “Philh” is derived from the Greek word “Velaye” meaig “beloved” As a “Aas al-Hayat” for its associatio with folklore stories, the efforts of the ubia Salvage Fud succeeded i trasferrig the etire effects of the islad to the eighborig islad of Agelika. The temple of Isis is the mai temple o the islad, where a quarter of its territory is built. Kig Ptolemy II built aother smaller temple, which was also dedicated to Isis ad dedicated to the soldiers protectig the souther borders of Egypt, which may Ptolemaic kigs cotributed to its costructio. The islad also has a temple devoted to the worship of Hathor, as well as the “akhtebo I”, as well as the “Tehraka”, which was also built for Isis
The missig obelisk is o the orther edge of the obelisk, which is the most importat graite quarry i Aswa. The missig obelisk lay o the orther edge of the obelisk, the most importat stoe quarry i Aswa; its stoes were used i the costructio of the Khufu pyramid, ad may of the obelisks were also cut. The obelisk is the logest Egyptia obelisk, with a legth of about 42 m ad a weight of 1000 tos. The obelisk was ot completed due to its surface crackig. The missig obelisk is due to the fact that it has show how to make obelisks ad pieces of large stoes. For example, the stoe was foud i the quarry of diorite balls – weighig up to 6 kg – used as hammers to separate ad cut the sides of the obelisk. Which precedes the work of a trech aroud the obelisk allowig the mass to be completely liberated.
The area icludes three pyramids (the Pyramid of Khufu – Pyramid of Khafra – the pyramid of Mekaure) as well as the famous statue of the Sphix. The Pyramid of Khufu represets the maximum of the efforts ad experieces of buildig the pyramids. This pyramid is ot oly the greatest of the Egyptias, but it also has the exceptioal perfectio i its architecture ad accuracy i the layout ad beauty of its proportios. It is believed that the levers were used to trasport ad lift these huge stoes. The other liftig tools were ot kow at the time ad were built by a large group of skilled workers ad workers. Supplyig them with temporary workers from the farmers throughout the year ad ot durig the three flood moths as I had previously thought. The curret height of the pyramid is 137 m but its origial height was 146 m, ad its base square ad the legth of each side of 227 m. The pyramid of Khafra shows the elemets of the whole pyramid group. The temple of the valley is close to the houses of the tow of azlat al-Samma, the ascedig road ad the fuerary temple, whose walls were built of local limestoe ad the floor of al-Marmar. It also cotais the famous Sphix statue, which appeared as a ew elemet that was ot repeated. Khafra pyramid is characterized by the presece of a part of the outer coverig, which was clad i the pyramid, ad the pyramid is ot ope for the visit ow because of the work of restoratio ad maiteace. The Mecaura pyramid was built o a cliff slope ad made the place level with blocks of limestoe.
The mosque is attributed to Sidi Mohamed Dhahir Ib al-Sayyid Muhammad Abu al-Makarem, who was bor i 930 AH ad died i 980 AH ad was buried i his curret uiversity, ad exteds to Mr. Hassa al-Akbar, brother of Mr. Ahmad al-Badawi. There is a foudig marble plaque datig back to 740 AH at the top of the right etrace. This cofirms that the oldest mosque of the curret mosque was located i the Mamluk era i the reig of the Prophet Muhammad ib Qalawu. The curret mosque was reewed i the Ottoma era i the 12th cetury. The mosque has three facades, which are south-east, orth-east ad orth-west, while the fourth meets the water ad the house of the mosque. The miaret is located to the left of the iside of the middle door. The mosque is a rectagular area divided ito five corridors by four iches made of marble colums with the highest poited capitals parallel to the qibla wall, which cotais three iches, the largest of which is the middle oe, all of which are crowed with a broke cotract ad decorated with mud bricks. His door is writte: “The Mu’allif al-Sharif Mu’laa Imam Dhuheir al-Di reewed with the help of God the work of teacher Rajab Ludi.” The dome is ot i ay of the pillars of the mosque, but i the middle of the secod gallery. At the bottom of the dome is a woode box with kufic iscriptio, “This is the place of Sidi Dhahiruddi”.
Located i the Siwa Oasis southwest of the city of Marsa Matruh, 306 km from Matrouh provice, the history of the village of Chali Bsiwa to the sixth-seveth cetury AH / twelfth – thirteeth cetury AD, ad sice that date settled Siwiu village ad surrouded by a wall ad called the ame Shali ad meas dialect Siwa “fort city”. The village had oly oe etrace located i the orth to be able to defed the village ad called “Bab Asal” the door of the city, ad after about a cetury opeed a secod door i the souther side called “Gate of the ruis,” the ew door, was used by those who do ot wat I frot of the heads of families who used to hold their coucils ear the mai etrace of the city. A third cetury later, a third door was opeed o the orther side, called the door of Qadouha, which was reserved for wome. The Siwiites were buildig their houses with krushive; the mud was take from the soil saturated with salt ad if it dried it became very hard.