The area was discovered in 1960 by the Supreme Council of Antiquities in cooperation with the Polish mission representative of the Polish Center for the Antiquities of the Mediterranean.
The importance of this area is due to the fact that it contains a number of valuable monuments dating back to the Ptolemaic, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic periods, as well as its unique location. It represents the southwestern boundary of the royal district – the most important and oldest part of the Old City – With the main crossroad. The area includes the Roman amphitheater, the Roman bath, the cisterns, the halls of the ancient Alexandria University, and a group of villas dating back to the early Roman era. The most important of these are the Bird Villa, a museum of Roman mosaics, which is one of the few models that highlight the development of the mosaic industry. The area is also home to a range of historic streets and galleries, a vivid example of the Roman lifestyle throughout the ages.
The Pillar of Al-Sawari (Diocletian’s Column) is one of the most famous archaeological sites in Alexandria Archeology. It was built between the current Muslim cemetery area known as the “Cemetery of the Column” and the ancient hill of Kom Al Shakafa. It is about 26.85 m long and is made of pink granite. The remains of the Serapeum Temple (Temple of the Serpentine Serapis) were founded by King Ptolemy III during the third century BC. The temple was the largest and most important temples of Alexandria in the Greco-Roman era.
The region was best known as the “Pillar of Suarees” by Arab travelers who later became the “Al-Sawari” and was known as the “Pompey Column” at the historians of the Crusades. The Alexandrians set up this pillar on the Temple of the Sarabium, dedicated to the Emperor Diocletian (248-305 AD) and thank him for redistributing the quota of wheat that Egypt was supposed to send to Rome. On the upper part of the base is a engraved Greek inscription, And the meaning of this inscription is as follows: “For the just Emperor, the protector of Alexandria, Diocletian the invincible, the governor of Egypt built this pillar.”
(1279-1212 BC). It has been linked to a high plateau of sandstone 4 km south of their current location, which was transferred to it in the campaign to save the effects of Nubia after the establishment of the High Dam in 1960.
The site of Abu Simbel contains two temples: the Temple of Abu Simbel the Great, which was dedicated to the worship of “Ra Hor My sister” and “Amun Ra” and the King himself, and the temple of Abu Simbel small, which is located 100 meters from the first temple dedicated to the worshiper Hathor and Queen Nefertari, the main wife of the king.
The name “Abu Simbel” was launched on this site by the Swiss traveler Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, known as Ibrahim Burkhart, who discovered the site in 1813 when he was accompanied by a child named Abu Simbel.
The importance of the Temple of Abu Simbel is attributed to its association with the phenomenon of the sun in the face of the statue of Pharaoh Ramses II twice a year; the first coincides with the anniversary of his birthday on 22 October and the second on 22 February, the anniversary of his coronation. The temple is distinguished by a unique architectural design. It was decorated with four large statues of King Ramses II, each of which reaches about 20 meters long. The façade is followed by a corridor leading to the temple, which is carved into the rock at a depth of 48 meters. Its walls are decorated with scenes of the king’s victories and conquests. The Battle of Kadesh where he defeated the Hittites, in addition to the religious scenes depicting the king in his relations with the Egyptian gods.
The small temple of Abu Simbel was given by King Ramses II to Queen Nefertari, his wife and master. His face is adorned with six large statues of equal size representing the king and the queen in a clear demonstration of the high status enjoyed by the queen in her husband. The temple extends into the plateau at a depth of 24 m. From the magnificent views that depicted the queen worshiping the various gods either with the king or alone.
Is the temple of the commemoration of Queen Hatshepsut in the monastery of the sea. The ancient Egyptians called it the Bridge of Amun, the holiest shrine of Amun. The temple was built by the architect “Sinnamot” in a distinctive style consisting of three balconies. The temple is famous for its sacred birth of Hatshepsut and its construction of Amun, as well as the details of its famous journey to Puntland. The temple has several booths, most notably the ones devoted to Hathor and Anubis. The temple inscriptions clearly show the manifestations of domestic and religious hostility through the deliberate distortion of the images of Hatshepsut by Thutmose III, and the distortion of the images of Amon by the priests of Aton.
The name “Kom Ombo” comes from two parts; the first is “kum” meaning “hill”; the second is “ambo”, which is defined as “anbo” or “nobo” ie gold, as this region controls the roads leading to the gold mines, Named “Ba-Subek”, the seat of Sobek, where he had worked since pre-family times.
Kom Ombo Temple is located on a high hill overlooking the eastern bank of the Nile. The temple dates back to the era of Ptolemy VI, but construction and engravings continued until the reign of Ptolemy XII. The temple of Kom Ombo is one of the most important temples in Egypt because of its architectural and religious excellence, where it is dedicated to two worshipers, Sobek and Horus. The temple is divided into two imaginary sections. The northern part of the temple is devoted to worshipers of the sacred triad of Horus. . The temple was also distinguished by a series of important views, including the division of the temple by the goddess Maat, the goddess of truth and justice, as well as a collection of surgical and medical instruments and a list of feasts held in the temple.
The island of Phila is of great importance to the ancient Egyptian because of its distinguished location. It and Aswan formed natural geographical boundaries. They are known in Egyptian texts as the dividing line. The word “Philh” is derived from the Greek word “Velaye” meaning “beloved” As an “Anas al-Hayat” for its association with folklore stories, the efforts of the Nubian Salvage Fund succeeded in transferring the entire effects of the island to the neighboring island of Agelika.
The temple of Isis is the main temple on the island, where a quarter of its territory is built. King Ptolemy II built another smaller temple, which was also dedicated to Isis and dedicated to the soldiers protecting the southern borders of Egypt, which many Ptolemaic kings contributed to its construction.
The island also has a temple devoted to the worship of Hathor, as well as the “Nakhtenbo I”, as well as the “Tehraka”, which was also built for Isis
The missing obelisk is on the northern edge of the obelisk, which is the most important granite quarry in Aswan.
The missing obelisk lay on the northern edge of the obelisk, the most important stone quarry in Aswan; its stones were used in the construction of the Khufu pyramid, and many of the obelisks were also cut.
The obelisk is the longest Egyptian obelisk, with a length of about 42 m and a weight of 1000 tons. The obelisk was not completed due to its surface cracking. The missing obelisk is due to the fact that it has shown how to make obelisks and pieces of large stones. For example, the stone was found in the quarry of diorite balls – weighing up to 6 kg – used as hammers to separate and cut the sides of the obelisk. Which precedes the work of a trench around the obelisk allowing the mass to be completely liberated.
The area includes three pyramids (the Pyramid of Khufu – Pyramid of Khafra – the pyramid of Menkaure) as well as the famous statue of the Sphinx.
The Pyramid of Khufu represents the maximum of the efforts and experiences of building the pyramids. This pyramid is not only the greatest of the Egyptians, but it also has the exceptional perfection in its architecture and accuracy in the layout and beauty of its proportions. It is believed that the levers were used to transport and lift these huge stones. The other lifting tools were not known at the time and were built by a large group of skilled workers and workers. Supplying them with temporary workers from the farmers throughout the year and not during the three flood months as I had previously thought. The current height of the pyramid is 137 m but its original height was 146 m, and its base square and the length of each side of 227 m.
The pyramid of Khafra shows the elements of the whole pyramid group. The temple of the valley is close to the houses of the town of Nazlat al-Samman, the ascending road and the funerary temple, whose walls were built of local limestone and the floor of al-Marmar. It also contains the famous Sphinx statue, which appeared as a new element that was not repeated. Khafra pyramid is characterized by the presence of a part of the outer covering, which was clad in the pyramid, and the pyramid is not open for the visit now because of the work of restoration and maintenance.
The Mencaura pyramid was built on a cliff slope and made the place level with blocks of limestone.
The mosque is attributed to Sidi Mohamed Dhahir Ibn al-Sayyid Muhammad Abu al-Makarem, who was born in 930 AH and died in 980 AH and was buried in his current university, and extends to Mr. Hassan al-Akbar, brother of Mr. Ahmad al-Badawi.
There is a founding marble plaque dating back to 740 AH at the top of the right entrance. This confirms that the oldest mosque of the current mosque was located in the Mamluk era in the reign of the Prophet Muhammad ibn Qalawun. The current mosque was renewed in the Ottoman era in the 12th century.
The mosque has three facades, which are south-east, north-east and north-west, while the fourth meets the water and the house of the mosque. The minaret is located to the left of the inside of the middle door. The mosque is a rectangular area divided into five corridors by four niches made of marble columns with the highest pointed capitals parallel to the qibla wall, which contains three niches, the largest of which is the middle one, all of which are crowned with a broken contract and decorated with mud bricks. His door is written: “The Mu’allif al-Sharif Mu’lana Imam Dhuheir al-Din renewed with the help of God the work of teacher Rajab Lundi.”
The dome is not in any of the pillars of the mosque, but in the middle of the second gallery. At the bottom of the dome is a wooden box with kufic inscription, “This is the place of Sidi Dhahiruddin”.
Located in the Siwa Oasis southwest of the city of Marsa Matruh, 306 km from Matrouh province, the history of the village of Chali Bsiwa to the sixth-seventh century AH / twelfth – thirteenth century AD, and since that date settled Siwiun village and surrounded by a wall and called the name Shali and means dialect Siwa “fort city”.
The village had only one entrance located in the north to be able to defend the village and called “Bab Ansal” the door of the city, and after about a century opened a second door in the southern side called “Gate of the ruins,” the new door, was used by those who do not want In front of the heads of families who used to hold their councils near the main entrance of the city.
A third century later, a third door was opened on the northern side, called the door of Qadouha, which was reserved for women.
The Siwiites were building their houses with krushive; the mud was taken from the soil saturated with salt and if it dried it became very hard.